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Tag questions, also called question tags are short questions that we add at the end of a statement.
— He is in his forties, isn't he?(= is that true? do you agree?)
— Yes, he's 43.
We use tag questions in dialogues when we want another person to confirm our statement or agree with it.
To make a tag question, we simply invert the auxiliary verb. It's very much like short answers.
— Angela lives in Manchester, doesn't she?
— Yes, she does.
— Alex and Joan are coming on Sunday, aren't they?
— Yes, they are.
— You haven't read that article yet, have you?
— No, I haven't.
As you can see, if the statement is positive, the verb in the tag question is negative. And vice versa, if the statement is negative, the verb in the tag question is positive.
Which auxiliary verb to use, depends on the verb tense in the statement. The most common tenses are covered in the table below. In negative tag questions, we use the contracted form of the verb.