First, let's look at the present simple positive with "be".
Now, let's make a question. It's very simple. All we need is swap am/is/are and the subject (I/you/they...). In questions with a question word, the sentence always begins with a question word.
I am late → Am I late?
You are happy. → Are you happy?
He is 28 years old. → How old is he?
Her parents are in Italy. → Where are her parents?
We can contract (shorten) the word "is" with these question words:
what's = what is
who's = who is
how's = how is
where's = where is
How's John? = How is John
Where's my cup? = Where is my cup?
Who's there? = Who is there?
We cannot contract am/is/are with other question words.
Sometimes we don't want to repeat the sentence in our answer to the question. That's where we need short answers. In the short negative answer, it's better to use one of the short forms.
— Are you happy with your new job at Google? — Yes, I am.
— Is she married? — No, she isn't. (= No, she's not).
— Are they here? — No, they aren't. (= No, they're not).