If the verb has one syllable and ends in a vowel + a consonant, then the last consonant doubles when we add -ing. Otherwise, the pronunciation will change. swim → swimming run → running
If the verb ends in a vowel + a consonant but has more than one syllable, then look which syllable is stressed. If it is the final syllable, we must double the consonant. prefer → preferring begin → beginning
If the verb ends in -l, then -l doubles. It does not matter which syllable is stressed. travel → travelling cancel → cancelling
If the verb ends in -e, we drop "e" when we add -ing. come → coming take → taking
If the verb ends in -ie, the letters "ie" change to "-ying" when we add -ing. lie → lying die → dying
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